Next Article in Journal
Domain 4 (D4) of Perfringolysin O to Visualize Cholesterol in Cellular Membranes—The Update
Previous Article in Journal
ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Based on an Integrated Cubic Phase Bilinear Autocorrelation Function
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 499; doi:10.3390/s17030499

Analytical and Experimental Performance Evaluation of BLE Neighbor Discovery Process Including Non-Idealities of Real Chipsets

1
Signal Theory and Communications Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C/Esteve Terrades 7, 08860 Castelldefels, Spain
2
Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Davide Brunelli
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8578 KB, uploaded 3 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate from a real perspective the performance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) as a technology that enables fast and reliable discovery of a large number of users/devices in a short period of time. The BLE standard specifies a wide range of configurable parameter values that determine the discovery process and need to be set according to the particular application requirements. Many previous works have been addressed to investigate the discovery process through analytical and simulation models, according to the ideal specification of the standard. However, measurements show that additional scanning gaps appear in the scanning process, which reduce the discovery capabilities. These gaps have been identified in all of the analyzed devices and respond to both regular patterns and variable events associated with the decoding process. We have demonstrated that these non-idealities, which are not taken into account in other studies, have a severe impact on the discovery process performance. Extensive performance evaluation for a varying number of devices and feasible parameter combinations has been done by comparing simulations and experimental measurements. This work also includes a simple mathematical model that closely matches both the standard implementation and the different chipset peculiarities for any possible parameter value specified in the standard and for any number of simultaneous advertising devices under scanner coverage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bluetooth Low Energy; neighbor discovery; non-detection probability; discovery latency; real testbed Bluetooth Low Energy; neighbor discovery; non-detection probability; discovery latency; real testbed
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Perez-Diaz de Cerio, D.; Hernández, Á.; Valenzuela, J.L.; Valdovinos, A. Analytical and Experimental Performance Evaluation of BLE Neighbor Discovery Process Including Non-Idealities of Real Chipsets. Sensors 2017, 17, 499.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top