Next Article in Journal
Steady γ-Ray Effects on the Performance of PPP-BOTDA and TW-COTDR Fiber Sensing
Next Article in Special Issue
Towards a Semantic Web of Things: A Hybrid Semantic Annotation, Extraction, and Reasoning Framework for Cyber-Physical System
Previous Article in Journal
Smooth Sensor Motion Planning for Robotic Cyber Physical Social Sensing (CPSS)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Structural Health Monitoring Using Textile Reinforcement Structures with Integrated Optical Fiber Sensors
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 392; doi:10.3390/s17020392

Middleware Design for Swarm-Driving Robots Accompanying Humans

1
Department of Software Convergence, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Bukgu, Daegu 702-701, Korea
2
School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Bukgu, Daegu 702-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Stefan Bosse, Ansgar Trächtler, Klaus-Dieter Thoben, Berend Denkena and Dirk Lehmhus
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System-Integrated Intelligence and Intelligent Systems)

Abstract

Research on robots that accompany humans is being continuously studied. The Pet-Bot provides walking-assistance and object-carrying services without any specific controls through interaction between the robot and the human in real time. However, with Pet-Bot, there is a limit to the number of robots a user can use. If this limit is overcome, the Pet-Bot can provide services in more areas. Therefore, in this study, we propose a swarm-driving middleware design adopting the concept of a swarm, which provides effective parallel movement to allow multiple human-accompanying robots to accomplish a common purpose. The functions of middleware divide into three parts: a sequence manager for swarm process, a messaging manager, and a relative-location identification manager. This middleware processes the sequence of swarm-process of robots in the swarm through message exchanging using radio frequency (RF) communication of an IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol and manages an infrared (IR) communication module identifying relative location with IR signal strength. The swarm in this study is composed of the master interacting with the user and the slaves having no interaction with the user. This composition is intended to control the overall swarm in synchronization with the user activity, which is difficult to predict. We evaluate the accuracy of the relative-location estimation using IR communication, the response time of the slaves to a change in user activity, and the time to organize a network according to the number of slaves. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile robot; human-accompanying robot; human-swarm interaction mobile robot; human-accompanying robot; human-swarm interaction
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, M.S.; Kim, S.H.; Kang, S.J. Middleware Design for Swarm-Driving Robots Accompanying Humans. Sensors 2017, 17, 392.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top