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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 403; doi:10.3390/s17020403

Towards a Semantic Web of Things: A Hybrid Semantic Annotation, Extraction, and Reasoning Framework for Cyber-Physical System

1
Information Network Engineering Research Center of Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Stefan Bosse, Ansgar Trächtler, Klaus-Dieter Thoben, Berend Denkena and Dirk Lehmhus
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System-Integrated Intelligence and Intelligent Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7251 KB, uploaded 20 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Web of Things (WoT) facilitates the discovery and interoperability of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in a cyber-physical system (CPS). Moreover, a uniform knowledge representation of physical resources is quite necessary for further composition, collaboration, and decision-making process in CPS. Though several efforts have integrated semantics with WoT, such as knowledge engineering methods based on semantic sensor networks (SSN), it still could not represent the complex relationships between devices when dynamic composition and collaboration occur, and it totally depends on manual construction of a knowledge base with low scalability. In this paper, to addresses these limitations, we propose the semantic Web of Things (SWoT) framework for CPS (SWoT4CPS). SWoT4CPS provides a hybrid solution with both ontological engineering methods by extending SSN and machine learning methods based on an entity linking (EL) model. To testify to the feasibility and performance, we demonstrate the framework by implementing a temperature anomaly diagnosis and automatic control use case in a building automation system. Evaluation results on the EL method show that linking domain knowledge to DBpedia has a relative high accuracy and the time complexity is at a tolerant level. Advantages and disadvantages of SWoT4CPS with future work are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Web of Things; cyber-physical system; semantic web; semantic sensor network; ontology; entity linking; semantic annotation; semantic reasoning Web of Things; cyber-physical system; semantic web; semantic sensor network; ontology; entity linking; semantic annotation; semantic reasoning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wu, Z.; Xu, Y.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, X.; Ji, Y. Towards a Semantic Web of Things: A Hybrid Semantic Annotation, Extraction, and Reasoning Framework for Cyber-Physical System. Sensors 2017, 17, 403.

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