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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 280; doi:10.3390/s17020280

A Versatile and Reproducible Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography System

Department Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Star
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1804 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]   |  


A highly versatile Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) system, nicknamed the ScouseTom, has been developed. The system allows control over current amplitude, frequency, number of electrodes, injection protocol and data processing. Current is injected using a Keithley 6221 current source, and voltages are recorded with a 24-bit EEG system with minimum bandwidth of 3.2 kHz. Custom PCBs interface with a PC to control the measurement process, electrode addressing and triggering of external stimuli. The performance of the system was characterised using resistor phantoms to represent human scalp recordings, with an SNR of 77.5 dB, stable across a four hour recording and 20 Hz to 20 kHz. In studies of both haeomorrhage using scalp electrodes, and evoked activity using epicortical electrode mats in rats, it was possible to reconstruct images matching established literature at known areas of onset. Data collected using scalp electrode in humans matched known tissue impedance spectra and was stable over frequency. The experimental procedure is software controlled and is readily adaptable to new paradigms. Where possible, commercial or open-source components were used, to minimise the complexity in reproduction. The hardware designs and software for the system have been released under an open source licence, encouraging contributions and allowing for rapid replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: Electrical Impedance Tomography; brain imaging; long term monitoring; evoked activity; open source hardware; Arduino Electrical Impedance Tomography; brain imaging; long term monitoring; evoked activity; open source hardware; Arduino

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Avery, J.; Dowrick, T.; Faulkner, M.; Goren, N.; Holder, D. A Versatile and Reproducible Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography System. Sensors 2017, 17, 280.

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