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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2704; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122704

Statistical Analysis of the Random Telegraph Noise in a 1.1 μm Pixel, 8.3 MP CMOS Image Sensor Using On-Chip Time Constant Extraction Method

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
This paper is an expanded version of our published paper: Chao, C.; Tu, H.;Wu, T.M.-H.; Chou, K.-Y.; Yeh, S.-F.; Hsueh, F.-L. Random Telegraph Noise Pixel Classification and Time Constant Extraction for a 1.1 m Pitch 8.3 MP CMOS Image Sensor. In Proceedings of the 2017 International Image Sensor Workshop, Hiroshima, Japan, 30 May–2 June 2017.
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Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue on the 2017 International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW))

Abstract

A study of the random telegraph noise (RTN) of a 1.1 μm pitch, 8.3 Mpixel CMOS image sensor (CIS) fabricated in a 45 nm backside-illumination (BSI) technology is presented in this paper. A noise decomposition scheme is used to pinpoint the noise source. The long tail of the random noise (RN) distribution is directly linked to the RTN from the pixel source follower (SF). The full 8.3 Mpixels are classified into four categories according to the observed RTN histogram peaks. A theoretical formula describing the RTN as a function of the time difference between the two phases of the correlated double sampling (CDS) is derived and validated by measured data. An on-chip time constant extraction method is developed and applied to the RTN analysis. The effects of readout circuit bandwidth on the settling ratios of the RTN histograms are investigated and successfully accounted for in a simulation using a RTN behavior model. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS image sensor (CIS); random telegraph noise (RTN); correlated double sampling (CDS); RTN emission and capture time constant; backside-illuminated technology (BSI); pinned photodiode (PPD); Gumbel distribution CMOS image sensor (CIS); random telegraph noise (RTN); correlated double sampling (CDS); RTN emission and capture time constant; backside-illuminated technology (BSI); pinned photodiode (PPD); Gumbel distribution
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Chao, C.Y.-P.; Tu, H.; Wu, T.M.-H.; Chou, K.-Y.; Yeh, S.-F.; Yin, C.; Lee, C.-L. Statistical Analysis of the Random Telegraph Noise in a 1.1 μm Pixel, 8.3 MP CMOS Image Sensor Using On-Chip Time Constant Extraction Method. Sensors 2017, 17, 2704.

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