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Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102203

Comparison of Methods Study between a Photonic Crystal Biosensor and Certified ELISA to Measure Biomarkers of Iron Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
3
Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
5
Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Health Monitoring and Disease Diagnosis)
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Abstract

The total analytical error of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor in the determination of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) as biomarkers of iron deficiency anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was evaluated against certified ELISAs. Antigens were extracted from sera of CKD patients using functionalized iron-oxide nanoparticles (fAb-IONs) followed by magnetic separation. Immuno-complexes were recognized by complementary detection Ab affixed to the PC biosensor surface, and their signals were followed using the BIND instrument. Quantification was conducted against actual protein standards. Total calculated error (TEcalc) was estimated based on systematic (SE) and random error (RE) and compared against total allowed error (TEa) based on established quality specifications. Both detection platforms showed adequate linearity, specificity, and sensitivity for biomarkers. Means, SD, and CV were similar between biomarkers for both detection platforms. Compared to ELISA, inherent imprecision was higher on the PC biosensor for ferritin, but not for sTfR. High SE or RE in the PC biosensor when measuring either biomarker resulted in TEcalc higher than the TEa. This did not influence the diagnostic ability of the PC biosensor to discriminate CKD patients with low iron stores. The performance of the PC biosensor is similar to certified ELISAs; however, optimization is required to reduce TEcalc. View Full-Text
Keywords: photonic crystal biosensor; iron deficiency biomarkers; method validation; total allowable error; analytical quality specification photonic crystal biosensor; iron deficiency biomarkers; method validation; total allowable error; analytical quality specification
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Peterson, R.D.; Wilund, K.R.; Cunningham, B.T.; Andrade, J.E. Comparison of Methods Study between a Photonic Crystal Biosensor and Certified ELISA to Measure Biomarkers of Iron Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Sensors 2017, 17, 2203.

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