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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2105; doi:10.3390/s17092105

Total Power Radiometer for Medical Sensor Applications Using Matched and Mismatched Noise Sources

Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 04107, Korea
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Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Health Monitoring and Disease Diagnosis)
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Abstract

This paper presents a simple total power radiometer to noninvasively measure the temperature of the human body. The proposed 3-GHz radiometer consists of an antenna collecting the noise power generated by a target, a low-noise and high-gain receiver amplifying the noise power, and a detector converting the noise power to voltage. A single-pole-triple-throw (SP3T) switch is placed between the antenna and the receiver, while a personal computer is used to control the SP3T switch, collect and process the data such as detector output voltages and physical temperatures of the reference noise sources and the target. The fabricated radiometer shows a good performance agreement with a thermometer in the temperature measurement of water from 25.0 to 43.1 °C. For the accurate prediction of the target temperature, the radiometer is calibrated adaptively to the environment and radiometer variations. For this purpose, two reference noise sources (hot and cold) are proposed using matched and mismatched resistors at room temperature. These resistor-based noise sources offer a reliable performance without complex temperature control systems. Furthermore, they can be easily calibrated in real time by periodically measuring the physical temperatures of the resistors. In addition, the logarithmic detector with wide dynamic range is adopted and logarithmically-fitted based on the measurement results instead of linear approximation, which reduces the error caused by the limited dynamic range of resistor-based noise sources. In order to further increase the accuracy, the performance imbalances between ports in the SP3T switch are also taken into account by employing offsets in the radiometer output voltages. View Full-Text
Keywords: detector; microwave radiometer; noise; temperature; remote sensing detector; microwave radiometer; noise; temperature; remote sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Park, W.; Jeong, J. Total Power Radiometer for Medical Sensor Applications Using Matched and Mismatched Noise Sources. Sensors 2017, 17, 2105.

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