Next Article in Journal
Detection of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor with a Novel Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Pair Using a Two-Component System
Previous Article in Journal
Cluster-Based Maximum Consensus Time Synchronization for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Organophosphorous Pesticide Detection in Olive Oil by Using a Miniaturized, Easy-to-Use, and Cost-Effective Biosensor Combined with QuEChERS for Sample Clean-Up
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 144; doi:10.3390/s17010144

Reagent-Less and Robust Biosensor for Direct Determination of Lactate in Food Samples

1
Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis Instrumental, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-Nanociencia), Faraday, 9, Campus UAM, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Institute for Advanced Research in Chemical Sciences (IAdChem), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jesus Iniesta Valcarcel and Craig E. Banks
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biosensors Based Screen Printed Platforms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1613 KB, uploaded 13 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Lactic acid is a relevant analyte in the food industry, since it affects the flavor, freshness, and storage quality of several products, such as milk and dairy products, juices, or wines. It is the product of lactose or malo-lactic fermentation. In this work, we developed a lactate biosensor based on the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) onto N,N′-Bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene) -1,2-diaminobenzene Schiff base tetradentate ligand-modified gold nanoparticles (3,4DHS–AuNPs) deposited onto screen-printed carbon electrodes, which exhibit a potent electrocatalytic effect towards hydrogen peroxide oxidation/reduction. 3,4DHS–AuNPs were synthesized within a unique reaction step, in which 3,4DHS acts as reducing/capping/modifier agent for the generation of stable colloidal suspensions of Schiff base ligand–AuNPs assemblies of controlled size. The ligand—in addition to its reduction action—provides a robust coating to gold nanoparticles and a catalytic function. Lactate oxidase (LOx) catalyzes the conversion of l-lactate to pyruvate in the presence of oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide, which is catalytically oxidized at 3,4DHS–AuNPs modified screen-printed carbon electrodes at +0.2 V. The measured electrocatalytic current is directly proportional to the concentration of peroxide, which is related to the amount of lactate present in the sample. The developed biosensor shows a detection limit of 2.6 μM lactate and a sensitivity of 5.1 ± 0.1 μA·mM−1. The utility of the device has been demonstrated by the determination of the lactate content in different matrixes (white wine, beer, and yogurt). The obtained results compare well to those obtained using a standard enzymatic-spectrophotometric assay kit. View Full-Text
Keywords: Schiff base tetradentate ligand modified gold nanoparticles; lactate determination; enzymatic biosensor; gold nanoparticles; lactate oxidase biosensor Schiff base tetradentate ligand modified gold nanoparticles; lactate determination; enzymatic biosensor; gold nanoparticles; lactate oxidase biosensor
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bravo, I.; Revenga-Parra, M.; Pariente, F.; Lorenzo, E. Reagent-Less and Robust Biosensor for Direct Determination of Lactate in Food Samples. Sensors 2017, 17, 144.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top