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Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1199; doi:10.3390/s16081199

A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management

1
Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Facchinetti
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucose Sensors: Revolution in Diabetes Management 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2626 KB, uploaded 30 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no “best-practice method” for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) between the mean individual breath acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T2D subjects, and healthy subjects. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone, under a specifically controlled condition fast (<1 min) and portable breath acetone measurement can be used for screening abnormal metabolic status including diabetes, for point-of-care monitoring status of ketone bodies which have the signature smell of breath acetone, and for breath acetone related clinical studies requiring a large number of tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: cavity ringdown breath analyzer; breath acetone; high data throughout; GC-MS validation; elevated mean acetone concentration cavity ringdown breath analyzer; breath acetone; high data throughout; GC-MS validation; elevated mean acetone concentration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, C.; Sun, M.; Wang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yuan, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, C. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management. Sensors 2016, 16, 1199.

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