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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1015; doi:10.3390/s16071015

Development of a Nafion/MWCNT-SPCE-Based Portable Sensor for the Voltammetric Analysis of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Ethambutol

LAQV/REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 17 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Herein we describe the development, characterization and application of an electrochemical sensor based on the use of Nafion/MWCNT-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the voltammetric detection of the anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug ethambutol (ETB). The electrochemical behaviour of the drug at the surface of the developed Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs was studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the modified surface of the electrodes. Results showed that, compared to both unmodified and MWCNTs-modified SPCEs, negatively charged Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs remarkably enhanced the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity for ETB due to the synergistic effect of the electrostatic interaction between cationic ETB molecules and negatively charged Nafion polymer and the inherent electrocatalytic properties of both MWCNTs and Nafion. Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs provided excellent biocompatibility, good electrical conductivity, low electrochemical interferences and a high signal-to-noise ratio, providing excellent performance towards ETB quantification in microvolumes of human urine and human blood serum samples. The outcomes of this paper confirm that the Nafion/MWCNT-SPCE-based device could be a potential candidate for the development of a low-cost, yet reliable and efficient electrochemical portable sensor for the low-level detection of this antimycobacterial drug in biological samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotube; electrochemistry; ethambutol; pharmaceutical analysis; screen-printed electrode; sensor; tuberculosis carbon nanotube; electrochemistry; ethambutol; pharmaceutical analysis; screen-printed electrode; sensor; tuberculosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Couto, R.A.S.; Quinaz, M.B. Development of a Nafion/MWCNT-SPCE-Based Portable Sensor for the Voltammetric Analysis of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Ethambutol. Sensors 2016, 16, 1015.

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