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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1012; doi:10.3390/s16071012

Classification of Kiwifruit Grades Based on Fruit Shape Using a Single Camera

1
College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon X. Yang
Received: 17 April 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Agriculture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1610 KB, uploaded 30 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility for classifying kiwifruit into shape grades by adding a single camera to current Chinese sorting lines equipped with weight sensors. Image processing methods are employed to calculate fruit length, maximum diameter of the equatorial section, and projected area. A stepwise multiple linear regression method is applied to select significant variables for predicting minimum diameter of the equatorial section and volume and to establish corresponding estimation models. Results show that length, maximum diameter of the equatorial section and weight are selected to predict the minimum diameter of the equatorial section, with the coefficient of determination of only 0.82 when compared to manual measurements. Weight and length are then selected to estimate the volume, which is in good agreement with the measured one with the coefficient of determination of 0.98. Fruit classification based on the estimated minimum diameter of the equatorial section achieves a low success rate of 84.6%, which is significantly improved using a linear combination of the length/maximum diameter of the equatorial section and projected area/length ratios, reaching 98.3%. Thus, it is possible for Chinese kiwifruit sorting lines to reach international standards of grading kiwifruit on fruit shape classification by adding a single camera. View Full-Text
Keywords: kiwifruit grading; international grading standards; Chinese grading standards; fruit shape; image processing method kiwifruit grading; international grading standards; Chinese grading standards; fruit shape; image processing method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fu, L.; Sun, S.; Li, R.; Wang, S. Classification of Kiwifruit Grades Based on Fruit Shape Using a Single Camera. Sensors 2016, 16, 1012.

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