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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 903; doi:10.3390/s16060903

Scan Line Based Road Marking Extraction from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds

School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
This paper is an extended version of the paper entitled “Automated Road Markings Extraction from Mobile LiDAR Data”, presented at MMT 2015, 9–11 December 2015, Sydney, Australia.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa Melesse
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)

Abstract

Mobile Mapping Technology (MMT) is one of the most important 3D spatial data acquisition technologies. The state-of-the-art mobile mapping systems, equipped with laser scanners and named Mobile LiDAR Scanning (MLS) systems, have been widely used in a variety of areas, especially in road mapping and road inventory. With the commercialization of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs) and self-driving technology, there will be a great demand for lane-level detailed 3D maps, and MLS is the most promising technology to generate such lane-level detailed 3D maps. Road markings and road edges are necessary information in creating such lane-level detailed 3D maps. This paper proposes a scan line based method to extract road markings from mobile LiDAR point clouds in three steps: (1) preprocessing; (2) road points extraction; (3) road markings extraction and refinement. In preprocessing step, the isolated LiDAR points in the air are removed from the LiDAR point clouds and the point clouds are organized into scan lines. In the road points extraction step, seed road points are first extracted by Height Difference (HD) between trajectory data and road surface, then full road points are extracted from the point clouds by moving least squares line fitting. In the road markings extraction and refinement step, the intensity values of road points in a scan line are first smoothed by a dynamic window median filter to suppress intensity noises, then road markings are extracted by Edge Detection and Edge Constraint (EDEC) method, and the Fake Road Marking Points (FRMPs) are eliminated from the detected road markings by segment and dimensionality feature-based refinement. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by three data samples and the experiment results indicate that road points are well extracted from MLS data and road markings are well extracted from road points by the applied method. A quantitative study shows that the proposed method achieves an average completeness, correctness, and F-measure of 0.96, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively. The time complexity analysis shows that the scan line based road markings extraction method proposed in this paper provides a promising alternative for offline road markings extraction from MLS data. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile LiDAR scanning; point clouds; scan line; road points extraction; road markings extraction mobile LiDAR scanning; point clouds; scan line; road points extraction; road markings extraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, L.; Liu, H.; Tan, J.; Li, Z.; Xie, H.; Chen, C. Scan Line Based Road Marking Extraction from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds. Sensors 2016, 16, 903.

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