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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 906; doi:10.3390/s16060906

Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study

Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Part of the material presented in Section 5.2 was already published in Aluigi, L.; Roselli, L.; White, S.; Alimenti, F. System-on-Chip 36.8 GHz Radiometer for Space-Based Observation of Solar Flares: Feasibility Study in 0.25 um SiGe BiCMOS Technology. Prog. Electromagn. Res. 2012, 130, 347–368.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ingolf Willms
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fire Detection)
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Abstract

This paper introduces the theory of fire detection in moving vehicles by microwave radiometers. The system analysis is discussed and a feasibility study is illustrated on the basis of two implementation hypotheses. The basic idea is to have a fixed radiometer and to look inside the glass windows of the wagon when it passes in front of the instrument antenna. The proposed sensor uses a three-pixel multi-beam configuration that allows an image to be formed by the movement of the train itself. Each pixel is constituted by a direct amplification microwave receiver operating at 31.4 GHz. At this frequency, the antenna can be a 34 cm offset parabolic dish, whereas a 1 K brightness temperature resolution is achievable with an overall system noise figure of 6 dB, an observation bandwidth of 2 GHz and an integration time of 1 ms. The effect of the detector noise is also investigated and several implementation hypotheses are discussed. The presented study is important since it could be applied to the automatic fire alarm in trains and moving vehicles with dielectric wall/windows. View Full-Text
Keywords: automatic fire detection; microwave sensors; microwave radiometers; remote sensing; moving vehicles; microwave electronics automatic fire detection; microwave sensors; microwave radiometers; remote sensing; moving vehicles; microwave electronics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Alimenti, F.; Roselli, L.; Bonafoni, S. Microwave Radiometers for Fire Detection in Trains: Theory and Feasibility Study. Sensors 2016, 16, 906.

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