Next Article in Journal
Kinect-Based Virtual Game for the Elderly that Detects Incorrect Body Postures in Real Time
Next Article in Special Issue
The β-Lactamase Assay: Harnessing a FRET Biosensor to Analyse Viral Fusion Mechanisms
Previous Article in Journal
Stability-Aware Geographic Routing in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of Gold Nanoparticles Aggregation Growth Induced by Nucleic Acid through Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 703; doi:10.3390/s16050703

Anchoring of FRET Sensors—A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution

Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg. 16A, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Niko Hildebrandt, Igor Medintz and Russ Algar
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FRET Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3516 KB, uploaded 18 May 2016]   |  


FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; caspase; FRET sensor; live cell imaging; neurodegeneration; signal transduction apoptosis; caspase; FRET sensor; live cell imaging; neurodegeneration; signal transduction

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ivanova, E.V.; Figueroa, R.A.; Gatsinzi, T.; Hallberg, E.; Iverfeldt, K. Anchoring of FRET Sensors—A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution. Sensors 2016, 16, 703.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top