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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 554; doi:10.3390/s16040554

Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

1
SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, Paris-Saclay University, Cachan 94230, France
2
Institute of Materials Research and Testing at the Bauhaus-University, Weimar 99423, Germany
3
French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), Chatenay-Malabry 92298, France
4
Simultation & Information Technologies for Power Generation Systems Department, EDF, Chatou 78400, France
5
LISIS COSYS, Ifsttar, University Paris Est, Champs sur Marne 77477, France
Current address: Geotechnical Engineering Centre, School of Civil Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4067, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3602 KB, uploaded 18 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling. View Full-Text
Keywords: water content measurement; TDR probe; clay-rock; dielectric spectroscopy; frequency domain finite element modeling water content measurement; TDR probe; clay-rock; dielectric spectroscopy; frequency domain finite element modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bore, T.; Wagner, N.; Delepine Lesoille, S.; Taillade, F.; Six, G.; Daout, F.; Placko, D. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect. Sensors 2016, 16, 554.

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