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Sensors 2016, 16(2), 146; doi:10.3390/s16020146

An Adaptive INS-Aided PLL Tracking Method for GNSS Receivers in Harsh Environments

School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa M. Melesse
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 20 December 2015 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 23 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)

Abstract

As the weak link in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing, the phase-locked loop (PLL) is easily influenced with frequent cycle slips and loss of lock as a result of higher vehicle dynamics and lower signal-to-noise ratios. With inertial navigation system (INS) aid, PLLs’ tracking performance can be improved. However, for harsh environments with high dynamics and signal attenuation, the traditional INS-aided PLL with fixed loop parameters has some limitations to improve the tracking adaptability. In this paper, an adaptive INS-aided PLL capable of adjusting its noise bandwidth and coherent integration time has been proposed. Through theoretical analysis, the relation between INS-aided PLL phase tracking error and carrier to noise density ratio (C/N0), vehicle dynamics, aiding information update time, noise bandwidth, and coherent integration time has been built. The relation formulae are used to choose the optimal integration time and bandwidth for a given application under the minimum tracking error criterion. Software and hardware simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the adaptive tracking method can effectively improve the PLL tracking ability and integrated GNSS/INS navigation performance. For harsh environments, the tracking sensitivity is increased by 3 to 5 dB, velocity errors are decreased by 36% to 50% and position errors are decreased by 6% to 24% when compared with other INS-aided PLL methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; INS-aided PLL; high dynamic; signal attenuation; noise bandwidth; coherent integration time; adaptive adjustment GNSS; INS-aided PLL; high dynamic; signal attenuation; noise bandwidth; coherent integration time; adaptive adjustment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cong, L.; Li, X.; Jin, T.; Yue, S.; Xue, R. An Adaptive INS-Aided PLL Tracking Method for GNSS Receivers in Harsh Environments. Sensors 2016, 16, 146.

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