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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2201; doi:10.3390/s16122201

Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services

1
Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
2
Key Laboratory for Urban Geomatics of National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation, Beijing 100044, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa M. Melesse
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3218 KB, uploaded 21 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10–20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3–5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS) combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50–80 km/h) mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed) for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS) were better than 0.15 m (horizontal) and 0.25 m (vertical) for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal) and 0.45 m (vertical) for the kinematic test. View Full-Text
Keywords: global navigation satellite system (GNSS); BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS); real-time kinematic (RTK); smart devices; location-based services (LBS) global navigation satellite system (GNSS); BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS); real-time kinematic (RTK); smart devices; location-based services (LBS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Li, Z.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, K.; Wang, Z.; Yuan, H. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services. Sensors 2016, 16, 2201.

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