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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2165; doi:10.3390/s16122165

Visualization of Fluoride Ions In Vivo Using a Gadolinium(III)-Coumarin Complex-Based Fluorescence/MRI Dual-Modal Probe

1
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051, China
2
Ansteel Mining Engineering Corporation, Anshan 114002, China
3
Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jong Seung Kim and Min Hee Lee
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric and Fluorescent Sensor)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2603 KB, uploaded 16 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

A new Gadolinium(III)–coumarin complex, DO3A-Gd-CA, was designed and prepared as a dual-modal probe for simultaneous fluorescence and relaxivity responses to fluoride ions (F) in aqueous media and mice. DO3A-Gd-CA was designed by using Gd(III) center as an MRI signal output unit and fluoride binding site, and the 4-(diethylamino)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CA) as a fluorescence reporter. Upon the addition of fluoride ions to the solution of DO3A-Gd-CA, the liberation of the coordinated CA ligand led to a 5.7-fold fluorescence enhancement and a 75% increase in the longitudinal relaxivity (r1). The fluorescent detection limit for fluoride ions was determined to be 8 μM based on a 3σ/slope. The desirable features of the proposed DO3A-Gd-CA, such as high sensitivity and specificity, reliability at physiological pH and low cytotoxicity enable its application in visualization of fluoride ion in mice. The successful in vivo imaging indicates that DO3A-Gd-CA could be potentially used in biomedical diagnosis fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: gadolinium(III) complex; dual-modal; detection; fluorescence/MRI; fluoride ion gadolinium(III) complex; dual-modal; detection; fluorescence/MRI; fluoride ion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, Y.; Song, R.; Feng, H.; Guo, K.; Meng, Q.; Chi, H.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z. Visualization of Fluoride Ions In Vivo Using a Gadolinium(III)-Coumarin Complex-Based Fluorescence/MRI Dual-Modal Probe. Sensors 2016, 16, 2165.

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