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Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1867; doi:10.3390/s16111867

Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 432-8011, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric R. Fossum
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 6 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
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Abstract

This paper discusses the noise reduction effect of multiple-sampling-based signal readout circuits for implementing ultra-low-noise image sensors. The correlated multiple sampling (CMS) technique has recently become an important technology for high-gain column readout circuits in low-noise CMOS image sensors (CISs). This paper reveals how the column CMS circuits, together with a pixel having a high-conversion-gain charge detector and low-noise transistor, realizes deep sub-electron read noise levels based on the analysis of noise components in the signal readout chain from a pixel to the column analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The noise measurement results of experimental CISs are compared with the noise analysis and the effect of noise reduction to the sampling number is discussed at the deep sub-electron level. Images taken with three CMS gains of two, 16, and 128 show distinct advantage of image contrast for the gain of 128 (noise(median): 0.29 erms) when compared with the CMS gain of two (2.4 erms), or 16 (1.1 erms). View Full-Text
Keywords: ultra low noise; multiple correlated double sampling; correlated multiple sampling; correlated double sampling; differential averager; CMOS image sensor; readout noise; 1/f noise; RTS noise; noise analysis ultra low noise; multiple correlated double sampling; correlated multiple sampling; correlated double sampling; differential averager; CMOS image sensor; readout noise; 1/f noise; RTS noise; noise analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kawahito, S.; Seo, M.-W. Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors. Sensors 2016, 16, 1867.

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