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Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1422; doi:10.3390/s16091422

A 72 × 60 Angle-Sensitive SPAD Imaging Array for Lens-less FLIM

1
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
3
Cortera Neurotechnologies, 2150 Shattuck Ave., PH, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edoardo Charbon
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [16738 KB, uploaded 2 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

We present a 72 × 60, angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) array for lens-less 3D fluorescence lifetime imaging. An A-SPAD pixel consists of (1) a SPAD to provide precise photon arrival time where a time-resolved operation is utilized to avoid stimulus-induced saturation, and (2) integrated diffraction gratings on top of the SPAD to extract incident angles of the incoming light. The combination enables mapping of fluorescent sources with different lifetimes in 3D space down to micrometer scale. Futhermore, the chip presented herein integrates pixel-level counters to reduce output data-rate and to enable a precise timing control. The array is implemented in standard 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology and characterized without any post-processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS avalanche photodiodes; highly sensitivity photodetectors; fluorescence imaging; photon timing; rangefinder; single photon detectors; SPAD arrays; time-correlated measurements; 3-D image sensor; lifetime microscopy; low power imaging; point-of-care; lab-on-chip; in-vitro; exponential decay; fill-factor; SPAD; photo-detector CMOS avalanche photodiodes; highly sensitivity photodetectors; fluorescence imaging; photon timing; rangefinder; single photon detectors; SPAD arrays; time-correlated measurements; 3-D image sensor; lifetime microscopy; low power imaging; point-of-care; lab-on-chip; in-vitro; exponential decay; fill-factor; SPAD; photo-detector
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.; Johnson, B.; Jung, T.; Molnar, A. A 72 × 60 Angle-Sensitive SPAD Imaging Array for Lens-less FLIM. Sensors 2016, 16, 1422.

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