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Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1810; doi:10.3390/s16111810

Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems

1
School of Computing and Digital Technology, Birmingham City University, Birmingham B4 7XG, UK
2
Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801, USA
3
Centre for Research and Innovation in Software Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400700, China
4
Networks Department, Simula Research Laboratory, Fornebu 1364, Norway
5
School of Engineering, London South Bank University, London SE1 0AA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrea Zanella and Toktam Mahmoodi
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 19 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart City: Vision and Reality)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [603 KB, uploaded 28 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Smart city systems embrace major challenges associated with climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and future services by embedding the virtual space into a complex cyber-physical system. Those systems are constantly evolving and scaling up, involving a wide range of integration among users, devices, utilities, public services and also policies. Modelling such complex dynamic systems’ architectures has always been essential for the development and application of techniques/tools to support design and deployment of integration of new components, as well as for the analysis, verification, simulation and testing to ensure trustworthiness. This article reports on the definition and implementation of a scalable component-based architecture that supports a cooperative energy demand response (DR) system coordinating energy usage between neighbouring households. The proposed architecture, called refinement of Cyber-Physical Component Systems (rCPCS), which extends the refinement calculus for component and object system (rCOS) modelling method, is implemented using Eclipse Extensible Coordination Tools (ECT), i.e., Reo coordination language. With rCPCS implementation in Reo, we specify the communication, synchronisation and co-operation amongst the heterogeneous components of the system assuring, by design scalability and the interoperability, correctness of component cooperation. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart city system modelling; component-based architecture design; component system interoperability and coordination; scalable modelling; cooperative demand response smart city system modelling; component-based architecture design; component system interoperability and coordination; scalable modelling; cooperative demand response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palomar, E.; Chen, X.; Liu, Z.; Maharjan, S.; Bowen, J. Component-Based Modelling for Scalable Smart City Systems Interoperability: A Case Study on Integrating Energy Demand Response Systems. Sensors 2016, 16, 1810.

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