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Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1768; doi:10.3390/s16101768

An Improved Map-Matching Technique Based on the Fréchet Distance Approach for Pedestrian Navigation Services

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Wearable and smartphone technology innovations have propelled the growth of Pedestrian Navigation Services (PNS). PNS need a map-matching process to project a user’s locations onto maps. Many map-matching techniques have been developed for vehicle navigation services. These techniques are inappropriate for PNS because pedestrians move, stop, and turn in different ways compared to vehicles. In addition, the base map data for pedestrians are more complicated than for vehicles. This article proposes a new map-matching method for locating Global Positioning System (GPS) trajectories of pedestrians onto road network datasets. The theory underlying this approach is based on the Fréchet distance, one of the measures of geometric similarity between two curves. The Fréchet distance approach can provide reasonable matching results because two linear trajectories are parameterized with the time variable. Then we improved the method to be adaptive to the positional error of the GPS signal. We used an adaptation coefficient to adjust the search range for every input signal, based on the assumption of auto-correlation between consecutive GPS points. To reduce errors in matching, the reliability index was evaluated in real time for each match. To test the proposed map-matching method, we applied it to GPS trajectories of pedestrians and the road network data. We then assessed the performance by comparing the results with reference datasets. Our proposed method performed better with test data when compared to a conventional map-matching technique for vehicles. View Full-Text
Keywords: map-matching; Pedestrian Navigation Service (PNS); Fréchet distance; autocorrelation; Global Positioning System (GPS) map-matching; Pedestrian Navigation Service (PNS); Fréchet distance; autocorrelation; Global Positioning System (GPS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bang, Y.; Kim, J.; Yu, K. An Improved Map-Matching Technique Based on the Fréchet Distance Approach for Pedestrian Navigation Services. Sensors 2016, 16, 1768.

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