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Sensors 2016, 16(1), 52; doi:10.3390/s16010052

A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging

1
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University Technology PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
2
Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, University Technology PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 20 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement. View Full-Text
Keywords: dielectric properties; complex permittivity; dielectric spectroscopy; meat quality; microwave sensor; microstrip ring-resonator; biosensor dielectric properties; complex permittivity; dielectric spectroscopy; meat quality; microwave sensor; microstrip ring-resonator; biosensor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jilani, M.T.; Wen, W.P.; Cheong, L.Y.; ur Rehman, M.Z. A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging. Sensors 2016, 16, 52.

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