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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 21710-21745; doi:10.3390/s150921710

Technologies for Assessment of Motor Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review

1
School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
2
Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish Institute, Kulim Hi-TechPark, 09000 Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 20 June 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 31 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1548 KB, uploaded 31 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is characterized as the commonest neurodegenerative illness that gradually degenerates the central nervous system. The goal of this review is to come out with a summary of the recent progress of numerous forms of sensors and systems that are related to diagnosis of PD in the past decades. The paper reviews the substantial researches on the application of technological tools (objective techniques) in the PD field applying different types of sensors proposed by previous researchers. In addition, this also includes the use of clinical tools (subjective techniques) for PD assessments, for instance, patient self-reports, patient diaries and the international gold standard reference scale, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Comparative studies and critical descriptions of these approaches have been highlighted in this paper, giving an insight on the current state of the art. It is followed by explaining the merits of the multiple sensor fusion platform compared to single sensor platform for better monitoring progression of PD, and ends with thoughts about the future direction towards the need of multimodal sensor integration platform for the assessment of PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson Disease (PD); wearable sensor; audio sensor; multimodal sensor; Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parkinson Disease (PD); wearable sensor; audio sensor; multimodal sensor; Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oung, Q.W.; Muthusamy, H.; Lee, H.L.; Basah, S.N.; Yaacob, S.; Sarillee, M.; Lee, C.H. Technologies for Assessment of Motor Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review. Sensors 2015, 15, 21710-21745.

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