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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 21134-21152; doi:10.3390/s150921134

Multi-Sensor Detection with Particle Swarm Optimization for Time-Frequency Coded Cooperative WSNs Based on MC-CDMA for Underground Coal Mines

1
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
2
Institute of Acoustics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 28 June 2015 / Revised: 8 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1101 KB, uploaded 27 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) technology adapted to underground channel conditions is developed, which has important theoretical and practical value for safety monitoring in underground coal mines. According to the characteristics that the space, time and frequency resources of underground tunnel are open, it is proposed to constitute wireless sensor nodes based on multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) to make full use of these resources. To improve the wireless transmission performance of source sensor nodes, it is also proposed to utilize cooperative sensors with good channel conditions from the sink node to assist source sensors with poor channel conditions. Moreover, the total power of the source sensor and its cooperative sensors is allocated on the basis of their channel conditions to increase the energy efficiency of the WSN. To solve the problem that multiple access interference (MAI) arises when multiple source sensors transmit monitoring information simultaneously, a kind of multi-sensor detection (MSD) algorithm with particle swarm optimization (PSO), namely D-PSO, is proposed for the time-frequency coded cooperative MC-CDMA WSN. Simulation results show that the average bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed WSN in an underground coal mine is improved significantly by using wireless sensor nodes based on MC-CDMA, adopting time-frequency coded cooperative transmission and D-PSO algorithm with particle swarm optimization. View Full-Text
Keywords: underground coal mine; multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA); coded cooperation; multi-sensor detection; power allocation; particle swarm optimization underground coal mine; multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA); coded cooperation; multi-sensor detection; power allocation; particle swarm optimization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.; Yang, W.; Zhang, L.; Han, R.; Shao, X. Multi-Sensor Detection with Particle Swarm Optimization for Time-Frequency Coded Cooperative WSNs Based on MC-CDMA for Underground Coal Mines. Sensors 2015, 15, 21134-21152.

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