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Sensors 2015, 15(8), 18427-18442; doi:10.3390/s150818427

Automated Mobile System for Accurate Outdoor Tree Crop Enumeration Using an Uncalibrated Camera

1
Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3407 KB, uploaded 28 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

This paper demonstrates an automated computer vision system for outdoor tree crop enumeration in a seedling nursery. The complete system incorporates both hardware components (including an embedded microcontroller, an odometry encoder, and an uncalibrated digital color camera) and software algorithms (including microcontroller algorithms and the proposed algorithm for tree crop enumeration) required to obtain robust performance in a natural outdoor environment. The enumeration system uses a three-step image analysis process based upon: (1) an orthographic plant projection method integrating a perspective transform with automatic parameter estimation; (2) a plant counting method based on projection histograms; and (3) a double-counting avoidance method based on a homography transform. Experimental results demonstrate the ability to count large numbers of plants automatically with no human effort. Results show that, for tree seedlings having a height up to 40 cm and a within-row tree spacing of approximately 10 cm, the algorithms successfully estimated the number of plants with an average accuracy of 95.2% for trees within a single image and 98% for counting of the whole plant population in a large sequence of images. View Full-Text
Keywords: tree crop enumeration; plant counting; uncalibrated camera; perspective transform; projection histogram; homography transform tree crop enumeration; plant counting; uncalibrated camera; perspective transform; projection histogram; homography transform
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, T.T.; Slaughter, D.C.; Hanson, B.D.; Barber, A.; Freitas, A.; Robles, D.; Whelan, E. Automated Mobile System for Accurate Outdoor Tree Crop Enumeration Using an Uncalibrated Camera. Sensors 2015, 15, 18427-18442.

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