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Sensors 2015, 15(6), 12668-12681; doi:10.3390/s150612668

An Optical Biosensor from Green Fluorescent Escherichia coli for the Evaluation of Single and Combined Heavy Metal Toxicities

1
School of Chemical Science and Food Technolgoy, Faculty of Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor D.E., Malaysia
2
Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative (SEADPRI-UKM), LESTARI, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor D.E., Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: M. Selim Ünlü
Received: 28 January 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 28 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Optical Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [906 KB, uploaded 28 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

A fluorescence-based fiber optic toxicity biosensor based on genetically modified Escherichia coli (E. coli) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was developed for the evaluation of the toxicity of several hazardous heavy metal ions. The toxic metals include Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III). The optimum fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of the optical biosensor were 400 ± 2 nm and 485 ± 2 nm, respectively. Based on the toxicity observed under optimal conditions, the detection limits of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Co(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Fe(III) that can be detected using the toxicity biosensor were at 0.04, 0.32, 0.46, 2.80, 100, 250, 400, 720 and 2600 μg/L, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed biosensor were 3.5%–4.8% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 3.6%–5.1% RSD (n = 8), respectively. The biosensor response was stable for at least five weeks, and demonstrated higher sensitivity towards metal toxicity evaluation when compared to a conventional Microtox assay. View Full-Text
Keywords: whole cell biosensor; hazardous heavy metal; optical fiber biosensor; GFP E. coli whole cell biosensor; hazardous heavy metal; optical fiber biosensor; GFP E. coli
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Futra, D.; Heng, L.Y.; Ahmad, A.; Surif, S.; Ling, T.L. An Optical Biosensor from Green Fluorescent Escherichia coli for the Evaluation of Single and Combined Heavy Metal Toxicities. Sensors 2015, 15, 12668-12681.

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