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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 9481-9518; doi:10.3390/s150409481

Design and Field Test of a WSN Platform Prototype for Long-Term Environmental Monitoring

Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (TO), Italy
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 2 December 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1474 KB, uploaded 23 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Long-term wildfire monitoring using distributed in situ temperature sensors is an accurate, yet demanding environmental monitoring application, which requires long-life, low-maintenance, low-cost sensors and a simple, fast, error-proof deployment procedure. We present in this paper the most important design considerations and optimizations of all elements of a low-cost WSN platform prototype for long-term, low-maintenance pervasive wildfire monitoring, its preparation for a nearly three-month field test, the analysis of the causes of failure during the test and the lessons learned for platform improvement. The main components of the total cost of the platform (nodes, deployment and maintenance) are carefully analyzed and optimized for this application. The gateways are designed to operate with resources that are generally used for sensor nodes, while the requirements and cost of the sensor nodes are significantly lower. We define and test in simulation and in the field experiment a simple, but effective communication protocol for this application. It helps to lower the cost of the nodes and field deployment procedure, while extending the theoretical lifetime of the sensor nodes to over 16 years on a single 1 Ah lithium battery. View Full-Text
Keywords: WSN; IoT; pervasive environmental monitoring; long-term operation; low maintenance; low-cost WSN nodes; low-cost WSN deployment; protocol design; low power WSN; IoT; pervasive environmental monitoring; long-term operation; low maintenance; low-cost WSN nodes; low-cost WSN deployment; protocol design; low power
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lazarescu, M.T. Design and Field Test of a WSN Platform Prototype for Long-Term Environmental Monitoring. Sensors 2015, 15, 9481-9518.

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