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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 8540-8549; doi:10.3390/s150408540

A Label-Free Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Ketamine Based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance

1,2,* , 1,3,* , 2
,
1
and
2
1
Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Soochow University, Dushu Lake Campus of Soochow University, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123, China
2
Department of Forensic Medicine, Soochow University, Dushu Lake Campus of Soochow University, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123, China
3
The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, Dushu Lake Campus of Soochow University, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Lieberzeit
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass-Sensitive Sensors Based on Biomimetic Recognition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [706 KB, uploaded 13 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this study, we have developed a label-free immunosensor with the variation of resonance frequency (Δf) of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as readout signal for ultrasensitive detection of Ketamine (KT). An optimized strategy for immobilization of KT antibody on the surface of the QCM chip was implemented via the self-assembly modification of 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and then activated with 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminoprophl) carbodiimide and n-hydroxysuccinimide. The specific affinity between the antibody and the antigen ensured a selective response toward KT. The Δf linearly related to the concentration of KT in the range of 1 to 40 pg/mL, with a detection limit of 0.86 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The obtained immunosensor was applied to detect the KT in spiked human urine without any pretreatment but dilution with recoveries from 91.8% to 108%. The developed sensor is promising to perform the portable or on-spot KT detection in clinic or forensic cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: quartz crystal microbalance; Ketamine; immunosensor; label-free; on-spot detection quartz crystal microbalance; Ketamine; immunosensor; label-free; on-spot detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.; Tu, Y.; Wang, X.; Pan, J.; Ding, Y. A Label-Free Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Ketamine Based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Sensors 2015, 15, 8540-8549.

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