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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 8314-8336; doi:10.3390/s150408314

Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

DeustoTech, Department of Engineering, University of Deusto, Bilbao 48007, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 2 December 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED). View Full-Text
Keywords: MAC; cluster; WSN; clustering; sensor; Aggregation; routing; energy MAC; cluster; WSN; clustering; sensor; Aggregation; routing; energy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mammu, A.S.K.; Hernandez-Jayo, U.; Sainz, N.; de la Iglesia, I. Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2015, 15, 8314-8336.

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