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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 7537-7570; doi:10.3390/s150407537

Determination of Optimum Viewing Angles for the Angular Normalization of Land Surface Temperature over Vegetated Surface

1
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
3
Key Laboratory of Agri-Informatics, Ministry of Agriculture/Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
4
ICube Laboratory, Université de Strasbourg, 67412 Illkirch, France
5
College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fabrizio Lamberti
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)

Abstract

Multi-angular observation of land surface thermal radiation is considered to be a promising method of performing the angular normalization of land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from remote sensing data. This paper focuses on an investigation of the minimum requirements of viewing angles to perform such normalizations on LST. The normally kernel-driven bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is first extended to the thermal infrared (TIR) domain as TIR-BRDF model, and its uncertainty is shown to be less than 0.3 K when used to fit the hemispheric directional thermal radiation. A local optimum three-angle combination is found and verified using the TIR-BRDF model based on two patterns: the single-point pattern and the linear-array pattern. The TIR-BRDF is applied to an airborne multi-angular dataset to retrieve LST at nadir (Te-nadir) from different viewing directions, and the results show that this model can obtain reliable Te-nadir from 3 to 4 directional observations with large angle intervals, thus corresponding to large temperature angular variations. The Te-nadir is generally larger than temperature of the slant direction, with a difference of approximately 0.5~2.0 K for vegetated pixels and up to several Kelvins for non-vegetated pixels. The findings of this paper will facilitate the future development of multi-angular thermal infrared sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: BRDF; angular normalization; land surface temperature; multi-angular; WiDAS BRDF; angular normalization; land surface temperature; multi-angular; WiDAS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, H.; Yan, G.; Liu, R.; Li, Z.-L.; Qin, Q.; Nerry, F.; Liu, Q. Determination of Optimum Viewing Angles for the Angular Normalization of Land Surface Temperature over Vegetated Surface. Sensors 2015, 15, 7537-7570.

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