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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 5803-5819; doi:10.3390/s150305803

Fracture of Human Femur Tissue Monitored by Acoustic Emission Sensors

1
Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
2
Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Panepistimioupolis Rion, 26500 Patra, Greece
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: mechanical loading; bone; fracture pattern; torsion; bending; RA; frequency; monitoring mechanical loading; bone; fracture pattern; torsion; bending; RA; frequency; monitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Aggelis, D.G.; Strantza, M.; Louis, O.; Boulpaep, F.; Polyzos, D.; van Hemelrijck, D. Fracture of Human Femur Tissue Monitored by Acoustic Emission Sensors. Sensors 2015, 15, 5803-5819.

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