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Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3426-3434; doi:10.3390/s150203426

Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Physiological Indicators of Paracoccus denitrificans Encapsulated in Silica Sol-Gel Hydrogels

1
Faculty of Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, KrálovaVýšina 3132/7, Ústí nad Labem 400 96, Czech Republic
2
Faculty of Food Technology, Kazan National Research Technological University, Karl-Marx-Str. 8, Kazan 420 015, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 3 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Based Sensors and Devices)
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Abstract

The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content was determined in samples of Paracoccus denitrificans encapsulated in silica hydrogel films prepared from prepolymerized tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Immediately after encapsulation the total PLFA concentration was linearly proportional to the optical density (600 nm) of the input microbial suspension (R2 = 0.99). After 7 days this relationship remained linear, but with significantly decreased slope, indicating a higher extinction of bacteria in suspensions of input concentration 108 cells/mL and higher. trans-Fatty acids, indicators of cytoplasmatic membrane disturbances, were below the detection limit. The cy/pre ratio (i.e., ratio of cyclopropylated fatty acids (cy17:0 + cy19:0) to their metabolic precursors (16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7)), an indicator of the transition of the culture to a stationary growth-phase, decreased depending on co-immobilization of nutrients in the order phosphate buffer > mineral medium > Luria Broth rich medium. The ratio, too, was logarithmically proportional to cell concentration. These results confirm the applicability of total PLFA as an indicator for the determination of living biomass and cy/pre ratio for determination of nutrient limitation of microorganisms encapsulated in sol-gel matrices. This may be of interest for monitoring of sol-gel encapsulated bacteria proposed as optical recognition elements in biosensor construction, as well as other biotechnological applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: phospholipid fatty acids; cy/pre indicator; encapsulation of bacteria; physiology of immobilized bacteria; sol-gel; whole-cell biosensing elements phospholipid fatty acids; cy/pre indicator; encapsulation of bacteria; physiology of immobilized bacteria; sol-gel; whole-cell biosensing elements
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Trögl, J.; Jirková, I.; Kuráň, P.; Akhmetshina, E.; Brovdyová, T.; Sirotkin, A.; Kirilina, T. Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Physiological Indicators of Paracoccus denitrificans Encapsulated in Silica Sol-Gel Hydrogels. Sensors 2015, 15, 3426-3434.

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