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Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29149-29181; doi:10.3390/s151129149

An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

1
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Biomedical Technology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
3
Cameron Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2J8, Canada
4
Internetworking Program, FE, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3J 4R2, Canada
5
Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad Highway, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 1 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1498 KB, uploaded 17 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS) to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG) routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT) algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS) to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks; routing protocol; mobile sink; autonomous underwater vehicle; lifetime underwater wireless sensor networks; routing protocol; mobile sink; autonomous underwater vehicle; lifetime
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Javaid, N.; Ilyas, N.; Ahmad, A.; Alrajeh, N.; Qasim, U.; Khan, Z.A.; Liaqat, T.; Khan, M.I. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2015, 15, 29149-29181.

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