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Sensors 2015, 15(10), 26478-26566; doi:10.3390/s151026478

Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China
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Academic Editor: Stefano Mariani
Received: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering 2013)

Abstract

Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators. View Full-Text
Keywords: MEMS/NEMS; micromechanical resonator; nanomechanical resonator; frequency tuning; tuning process MEMS/NEMS; micromechanical resonator; nanomechanical resonator; frequency tuning; tuning process
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, W.-M.; Hu, K.-M.; Peng, Z.-K.; Meng, G. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators. Sensors 2015, 15, 26478-26566.

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