A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System
AbstractThis paper proposes two schemes for indoor positioning by fusing Bluetooth beacons and a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) technique to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. As to the PDR approach, a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm is used to improve the positioning accuracy. According to pedestrians’ different walking patterns such as walking or running, this paper makes a comparative analysis of multiple step length calculation models to determine a linear computation model and the relevant parameters. In consideration of the deviation between the real heading and the value of the orientation sensor, a heading estimation method with real-time compensation is proposed, which is based on a Kalman filter with map geometry information. The corrected heading can inhibit the positioning error accumulation and improve the positioning accuracy of PDR. Moreover, this paper has implemented two positioning approaches integrated with Bluetooth and PDR. One is the PDR-based positioning method based on map matching and position correction through Bluetooth. There will not be too much calculation work or too high maintenance costs using this method. The other method is a fusion calculation method based on the pedestrians’ moving status (direct movement or making a turn) to determine adaptively the noise parameters in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) system. This method has worked very well in the elimination of various phenomena, including the “go and back” phenomenon caused by the instability of the Bluetooth-based positioning system and the “cross-wall” phenomenon due to the accumulative errors caused by the PDR algorithm. Experiments performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building in the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus showed that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve a 2-meter precision. View Full-Text
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Li, X.; Wang, J.; Liu, C. A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System. Sensors 2015, 15, 24862-24885.
Li X, Wang J, Liu C. A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System. Sensors. 2015; 15(10):24862-24885.Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Xin; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunyan. 2015. "A Bluetooth/PDR Integration Algorithm for an Indoor Positioning System." Sensors 15, no. 10: 24862-24885.