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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 304-330; doi:10.3390/s150100304

An Efficient Approach for Pixel Decomposition to Increase the Spatial Resolution of Land Surface Temperature Images from MODIS Thermal Infrared Band Data

1
School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
2
Institute of Agro-Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Department of Environmental Physics J. Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990, Israel
4
Collaborative Innovation Center of South China Sea Studies, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 25 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1920 KB, uploaded 25 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Land surface temperature (LST) images retrieved from the thermal infrared (TIR) band data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have much lower spatial resolution than the MODIS visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band data. The coarse pixel scale of MODIS LST images (1000 m under nadir) have limited their capability in applying to many studies required high spatial resolution in comparison of the MODIS VNIR band data with pixel scale of 250–500 m. In this paper we intend to develop an efficient approach for pixel decomposition to increase the spatial resolution of MODIS LST image using the VNIR band data as assistance. The unique feature of this approach is to maintain the thermal radiance of parent pixels in the MODIS LST image unchanged after they are decomposed into the sub-pixels in the resulted image. There are two important steps in the decomposition: initial temperature estimation and final temperature determination. Therefore the approach can be termed double-step pixel decomposition (DSPD). Both steps involve a series of procedures to achieve the final result of decomposed LST image, including classification of the surface patterns, establishment of LST change with normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) and building index (NDBI), reversion of LST into thermal radiance through Planck equation, and computation of weights for the sub-pixels of the resulted image. Since the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with much higher spatial resolution than MODIS data was on-board the same platform (Terra) as MODIS for Earth observation, an experiment had been done in the study to validate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach for pixel decomposition. The ASTER LST image was used as the reference to compare with the decomposed LST image. The result showed that the spatial distribution of the decomposed LST image was very similar to that of the ASTER LST image with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.7 K for entire image. Comparison with the evaluation DisTrad (E-DisTrad) and re-sampling methods for pixel decomposition also indicate that our DSPD has the lowest RMSE in all cases, including urban region, water bodies, and natural terrain. The obvious increase in spatial resolution remarkably uplifts the capability of the coarse MODIS LST images in highlighting the details of LST variation. Therefore it can be concluded that, in spite of complicated procedures, the proposed DSPD approach provides an alternative to improve the spatial resolution of MODIS LST image hence expand its applicability to the real world. View Full-Text
Keywords: pixel decomposition; land surface temperature; spatial resolution; MODIS; ASTER pixel decomposition; land surface temperature; spatial resolution; MODIS; ASTER
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, F.; Qin, Z.; Li, W.; Song, C.; Karnieli, A.; Zhao, S. An Efficient Approach for Pixel Decomposition to Increase the Spatial Resolution of Land Surface Temperature Images from MODIS Thermal Infrared Band Data. Sensors 2015, 15, 304-330.

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