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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 1635-1675; doi:10.3390/s150101635

Design of Surface Modifications for Nanoscale Sensor Applications

1
Institute for Biologically Inspired Materials, Department of Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna, Austria
2
Biological Physics, Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Fysikgränd 3, SE-411 33 Göteborg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

Nanoscale biosensors provide the possibility to miniaturize optic, acoustic and electric sensors to the dimensions of biomolecules. This enables approaching single-molecule detection and new sensing modalities that probe molecular conformation. Nanoscale sensors are predominantly surface-based and label-free to exploit inherent advantages of physical phenomena allowing high sensitivity without distortive labeling. There are three main criteria to be optimized in the design of surface-based and label-free biosensors: (i) the biomolecules of interest must bind with high affinity and selectively to the sensitive area; (ii) the biomolecules must be efficiently transported from the bulk solution to the sensor; and (iii) the transducer concept must be sufficiently sensitive to detect low coverage of captured biomolecules within reasonable time scales. The majority of literature on nanoscale biosensors deals with the third criterion while implicitly assuming that solutions developed for macroscale biosensors to the first two, equally important, criteria are applicable also to nanoscale sensors. We focus on providing an introduction to and perspectives on the advanced concepts for surface functionalization of biosensors with nanosized sensor elements that have been developed over the past decades (criterion (iii)). We review in detail how patterning of molecular films designed to control interactions of biomolecules with nanoscale biosensor surfaces creates new possibilities as well as new challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoscale sensor; biosensor; surface functionalization; molecular patterning nanoscale sensor; biosensor; surface functionalization; molecular patterning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Reimhult, E.; Höök, F. Design of Surface Modifications for Nanoscale Sensor Applications. Sensors 2015, 15, 1635-1675.

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