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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 1537-1563; doi:10.3390/s150101537

Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 26 December 2014 / Published: 14 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)


In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR) technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures). To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH), are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER) at a given depth of field (DoF) and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones. View Full-Text
Keywords: face liveness detection; anti-spoofing; defocus; 2D fake face; webcam face liveness detection; anti-spoofing; defocus; 2D fake face; webcam

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, S.; Ban, Y.; Lee, S. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus. Sensors 2015, 15, 1537-1563.

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