Next Article in Journal
An Energy Efficient Distance-Aware Routing Algorithm with Multiple Mobile Sinks for Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 15142-15162; doi:10.3390/s140815142

Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

Intelligent Systems and Networks Group, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [289 KB, uploaded 18 August 2014]   |  

Abstract

Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. View Full-Text
Keywords: coordinated emergency navigation; infrastructure-less; cloud computing; ad hoc cognitive packet networks coordinated emergency navigation; infrastructure-less; cloud computing; ad hoc cognitive packet networks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gelenbe, E.; Bi, H. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure. Sensors 2014, 14, 15142-15162.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top