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Sensors 2014, 14(8), 13476-13495; doi:10.3390/s140813476

From the Solution Processing of Hydrophilic Molecules to Polymer-Phthalocyanine Hybrid Materials for Ammonia Sensing in High Humidity Atmospheres

1
Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de l'Université de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 6302, Université de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon Cedex, France
2
Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 28 June 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
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Abstract

We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (PAA-AM), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyaniline (PANI) as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3) of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH) variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL) technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3) of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%–70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: solution processing; polyaniline; phthalocyanine; hybrid material; layer-by-layer; ammonia; relative humidity; conductometric sensor solution processing; polyaniline; phthalocyanine; hybrid material; layer-by-layer; ammonia; relative humidity; conductometric sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaudillat, P.; Jurin, F.; Lakard, B.; Buron, C.; Suisse, J.-M.; Bouvet, M. From the Solution Processing of Hydrophilic Molecules to Polymer-Phthalocyanine Hybrid Materials for Ammonia Sensing in High Humidity Atmospheres. Sensors 2014, 14, 13476-13495.

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