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Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Gilles Horowitz

CNRS - LPICM, UMR 7647, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau, France
Interests: organic electronics; organic field-effect transistors; organic circuit modeling; biosensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a comprehensive overview on the state-of-the-art sensors technology of France. Research articles are invited, which will provide a consolidated, up-to-date perspective in this area. The Special Issue will publish full research, review, and other highly-rated manuscripts addressing the above topic.

Prof. Dr. Gilles Horowitz
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • biosensors
  • chemical sensors
  • physical densors
  • sensor networks
  • remote sensors

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Estimation of Soil Moisture Content from the Spectral Reflectance of Bare Soils in the 0.4–2.5 µm Domain
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3262-3281; doi:10.3390/s150203262
Received: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 2 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aims to compare the performance of new methods to estimate the Soil Moisture Content (SMC) of bare soils from their spectral signatures in the reflective domain (0.4–2.5 µm) in comparison with widely used spectral indices like Normalized Soil Moisture Index [...] Read more.
This work aims to compare the performance of new methods to estimate the Soil Moisture Content (SMC) of bare soils from their spectral signatures in the reflective domain (0.4–2.5 µm) in comparison with widely used spectral indices like Normalized Soil Moisture Index (NSMI) and Water Index SOIL (WISOIL). Indeed, these reference spectral indices use wavelengths located in the water vapour absorption bands and their performance are thus very sensitive to the quality of the atmospheric compensation. To reduce these limitations, two new spectral indices are proposed which wavelengths are defined using the determination matrix tool by taking into account the atmospheric transmission: Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Linear correlation (NINSOL) and Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Non linear correlation (NINSON). These spectral indices are completed by two new methods based on the global shape of the soil spectral signatures. These methods are the Inverse Soil semi-Empirical Reflectance model (ISER), using the inversion of an existing empirical soil model simulating the soil spectral reflectance according to soil moisture content for a given soil class, and the convex envelope model, linking the area between the envelope and the spectral signature to the SMC. All these methods are compared using a reference database built with 32 soil samples and composed of 190 spectral signatures with five or six soil moisture contents. Half of the database is used for the calibration stage and the remaining to evaluate the performance of the SMC estimation methods. The results show that the four new methods lead to similar or better performance than the one obtained by the reference indices. The RMSE is ranging from 3.8% to 6.2% and the coefficient of determination R2 varies between 0.74 and 0.91 with the best performance obtained with the ISER model. In a second step, simulated spectral radiances at the sensor level are used to analyse the sensitivity of these methods to the sensor spectral resolution and the water vapour content knowledge. The spectral signatures of the database are then used to simulate the signal at the top of atmosphere with a radiative transfer model and to compute the integrated incident signal representing the spectral radiance measurements of the HYMAP airborne hyperspectral instrument. The sensor radiances are then corrected from the atmosphere by an atmospheric compensation tool to retrieve the surface reflectances. The SMC estimation methods are then applied on the retrieve spectral reflectances. The adaptation of the spectral index wavelengths to the HyMap sensor spectral bands and the application of the convex envelope and ISER models to boarder spectral bands lead to an error on the SMC estimation. The best performance is then obtained with the ISER model (RMSE of 2.9% and R2 of 0.96) while the four other methods lead to quite similar RMSE (from 6.4% to 7.8%) and R² (between 0.79 and 0.83) values. In the atmosphere compensation processing, an error on the water vapour content is introduced. The most robust methods to water vapour content variations are WISOIL, NINSON, NINSOL and ISER model. The convex envelope model and NSMI index require an accurate estimation of the water vapour content in the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
Open AccessArticle LIDAR Developments at Clermont-Ferrand—France for Atmospheric Observation
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3041-3069; doi:10.3390/s150203041
Received: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
PDF Full-text (3802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a Rayleigh-Mie-Raman LIDAR system in operation at Clermont-Ferrand (France) since 2008. The system provides continuous vertical tropospheric profiles of aerosols, cirrus optical properties and water vapour mixing ratio. Located in proximity to the high altitude Puy de Dôme station, labelled [...] Read more.
We present a Rayleigh-Mie-Raman LIDAR system in operation at Clermont-Ferrand (France) since 2008. The system provides continuous vertical tropospheric profiles of aerosols, cirrus optical properties and water vapour mixing ratio. Located in proximity to the high altitude Puy de Dôme station, labelled as the GAW global station PUY since August 2014, it is a useful tool to describe the boundary layer dynamics and hence interpret in situ measurements. This LIDAR has been upgraded with specific hardware/software developments and laboratory calibrations in order to improve the quality of the profiles, calibrate the depolarization ratio, and increase the automation of operation. As a result, we provide a climatological water vapour profile analysis for the 2009–2013 period, showing an annual cycle with a winter minimum and a summer maximum, consistent with in-situ observations at the PUY station. An overview of a preliminary climatology of cirrus clouds frequency shows that in 2014, more than 30% of days present cirrus events. Finally, the backscatter coefficient profile observed on 27 September 2014 shows the capacity of the system to detect cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude, in presence of aerosols below the 5 km altitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
Open AccessArticle Memory and Energy Optimization Strategies for Multithreaded Operating System on the Resource-Constrained Wireless Sensor Node
Sensors 2015, 15(1), 22-48; doi:10.3390/s150100022
Received: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
PDF Full-text (3265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Memory and energy optimization strategies are essential for the resource-constrained wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. In this article, a new memory-optimized and energy-optimized multithreaded WSN operating system (OS) LiveOS is designed and implemented. Memory cost of LiveOS is optimized by using the [...] Read more.
Memory and energy optimization strategies are essential for the resource-constrained wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. In this article, a new memory-optimized and energy-optimized multithreaded WSN operating system (OS) LiveOS is designed and implemented. Memory cost of LiveOS is optimized by using the stack-shifting hybrid scheduling approach. Different from the traditional multithreaded OS in which thread stacks are allocated statically by the pre-reservation, thread stacks in LiveOS are allocated dynamically by using the stack-shifting technique. As a result, memory waste problems caused by the static pre-reservation can be avoided. In addition to the stack-shifting dynamic allocation approach, the hybrid scheduling mechanism which can decrease both the thread scheduling overhead and the thread stack number is also implemented in LiveOS. With these mechanisms, the stack memory cost of LiveOS can be reduced more than 50% if compared to that of a traditional multithreaded OS. Not is memory cost optimized, but also the energy cost is optimized in LiveOS, and this is achieved by using the multi-core “context aware” and multi-core “power-off/wakeup” energy conservation approaches. By using these approaches, energy cost of LiveOS can be reduced more than 30% when compared to the single-core WSN system. Memory and energy optimization strategies in LiveOS not only prolong the lifetime of WSN nodes, but also make the multithreaded OS feasible to run on the memory-constrained WSN nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
Open AccessArticle High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 24502-24522; doi:10.3390/s141224502
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. [...] Read more.
A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
Open AccessArticle Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21626-21659; doi:10.3390/s141121626
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (11735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of [...] Read more.
Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
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Open AccessArticle Toward Smart Aerospace Structures: Design of a Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Analog Interface for Flaw Detection
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 20543-20561; doi:10.3390/s141120543
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures’ reliability. The study begins by a physical and analytical analysis of a piezoelectric patch. To preserve the structure’s integrity, the transducers are directly pasted onto the surface which leads to a critical issue concerning the interfacing layer. In order to improve the reliability and mitigate the influence of the interfacing layer, the global equations of piezoelectricity are coupled with a load transfer model. Thus we can determine precisely the shear strain developed on the surface of the structure. To exploit the generated signal, a high precision analog charge amplifier coupled to a double T notch filter were designed and scaled. Finally, a novel joined time-frequency analysis based on a wavelet decomposition algorithm is used to extract relevant structures signatures. Finally, this paper provides examples of application on aircraft structure specimens and the feasibility of the system is thus demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
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Open AccessArticle Shaping of Looped Miniaturized Chalcogenide Fiber Sensing Heads for Mid-Infrared Sensing
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 17905-17914; doi:10.3390/s141017905
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chalcogenide glass fibers are promising photonic tools to develop Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) optical sensors working in the mid-infrared region. Numerous pioneering works have already been carried out showing their efficiency, especially for bio-medical applications. Nevertheless, this technology remains confined to [...] Read more.
Chalcogenide glass fibers are promising photonic tools to develop Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) optical sensors working in the mid-infrared region. Numerous pioneering works have already been carried out showing their efficiency, especially for bio-medical applications. Nevertheless, this technology remains confined to academic studies at the laboratory scale because chalcogenide glass fibers are difficult to shape to produce reliable, sensitive and compact sensors. In this paper, a new method for designing and fabricating a compact and robust sensing head with a selenide glass fiber is described. Compact looped sensing heads with diameter equal to 2 mm were thus shaped. This represents an outstanding achievement considering the brittleness of such uncoated fibers. FEWS experiments were implemented using alcoholic solutions as target samples showing that the sensitivity is higher than with the routinely used classical fiber. It is also shown that the best compromise in term of sensitivity is to fabricate a sensing head including two full loops. From a mechanical point of view, the breaking loads of the loop shaped head are also much higher than with classical fiber. Finally, this achievement paves the way for the use of mid-infrared technology during in situ and even in vivo medical operations. Indeed, is is now possible to slide a chalcogenide glass fiber in the operating channel of a standard 2.8 mm diameter catheter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
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Open AccessArticle Presentation of a Complex Permittivity-Meter with Applications for Sensing the Moisture and Salinity of a Porous Media
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 15815-15835; doi:10.3390/s140915815
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
PDF Full-text (11428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a sensor dedicated to measuring the vertical profile of the complex permittivity and the temperature of any medium in which sensor electrodes are inserted. Potential applications are the estimate of the humidity and salinity in a porous medium, such [...] Read more.
This paper describes a sensor dedicated to measuring the vertical profile of the complex permittivity and the temperature of any medium in which sensor electrodes are inserted. Potential applications are the estimate of the humidity and salinity in a porous medium, such as a soil. It consists of vertically-stacked capacitors along two conductive parallel cylinders of 5 cm in diameter and at a 10-cm distance to scan a significant volume of the medium (~1 L). It measures their admittances owing to a self-balanced impedance bridge operating at a frequency in the range of 1–20 MHz, possibly 30 MHz. Thanks to accurate design and electronic circuit theory-based modeling, the determination of the admittances takes into account all distortions due to lead and bridge electromagnetic effects inside the sensor when working at high frequencies. Calibration procedures and uncertainties are presented. The article also describes developments to make the present sensor autonomous on digital acquisition, basic data treatment and energy, as well as able to transfer stored data by a radio link. These steps in progress are prerequisites for a wireless network of sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
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Open AccessArticle From the Solution Processing of Hydrophilic Molecules to Polymer-Phthalocyanine Hybrid Materials for Ammonia Sensing in High Humidity Atmospheres
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 13476-13495; doi:10.3390/s140813476
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 28 June 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (PAA-AM), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyaniline (PANI) as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia [...] Read more.
We have prepared different hybrid polymer-phthalocyanine materials by solution processing, starting from two sulfonated phthalocyanines, s-CoPc and CuTsPc, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (PAA-AM), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and polyaniline (PANI) as polymers. We also studied the response to ammonia (NH3) of resistors prepared from these sensing materials. The solvent casted films, prepared from s-CoPc and PVP, PEG and PAA-AM, were highly insulating and very sensitive to the relative humidity (RH) variation. The incorporation of s-CoPc in PDDA by means of layer-by-layer (LBL) technique allowed to stabilize the film, but was too insulating to be interesting. We also prepared PANI-CuTsPc hybrid films by LBL technique. It allowed a regular deposition as evidenced by the linear increase of the absorbance at 688 nm as a function of the number of bilayers. The sensitivity to ammonia (NH3) of PANi-CuTsPc resistors was very high compared to that of individual materials, giving up to 80% of current decrease when exposed to 30 ppm NH3. Contrarily to what happens with neutral polymers, in PANI, CuTsPc was stabilized by strong electrostatic interactions, leading to a stable response to NH3, whatever the relative humidity in the range 10%–70%. Thus, the synergy of PANI with ionic macrocycles used as counteranions combined with their simple aqueous solution processing opens the way to the development of new gas sensors capable of operating in real world conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
Open AccessArticle Electrocatalytic miRNA Detection Using Cobalt Porphyrin-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 9984-9994; doi:10.3390/s140609984
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 8 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metalated porphyrins have been described to bind nucleic acids. Additionally, cobalt porphyrins present catalytic properties towards oxygen reduction. In this work, a carboxylic acid-functionalized cobalt porphyrin was physisorbed on reduced graphene oxide, then immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes. The carboxylic groups were [...] Read more.
Metalated porphyrins have been described to bind nucleic acids. Additionally, cobalt porphyrins present catalytic properties towards oxygen reduction. In this work, a carboxylic acid-functionalized cobalt porphyrin was physisorbed on reduced graphene oxide, then immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes. The carboxylic groups were used to covalently graft amino-terminated oligonucleotide probes which are complementary to a short microRNA target. It was shown that the catalytic oxygen electroreduction on cobalt porphyrin increases upon hybridization of miRNA strand (“signal-on” response). Current changes are amplified compared to non-catalytic amperometric system. Apart from oxygen, no added reagent is necessary. A limit of detection in the sub-nanomolar range was reached. This approach has never been described in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France)
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