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Sensors 2014, 14(7), 12715-12734; doi:10.3390/s140712715
Article

Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing

1
, 2,*  and 1,3
Received: 17 March 2014; in revised form: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract: Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.
Keywords: global navigation satellite system (GNSS); attitude determination; multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA); carrier phase ambiguity resolution; direct geo-referencing; laser scanner global navigation satellite system (GNSS); attitude determination; multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA); carrier phase ambiguity resolution; direct geo-referencing; laser scanner
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nadarajah, N.; Paffenholz, J.-A.; Teunissen, P.J.G. Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing. Sensors 2014, 14, 12715-12734.

AMA Style

Nadarajah N, Paffenholz J-A, Teunissen PJG. Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing. Sensors. 2014; 14(7):12715-12734.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J.G. 2014. "Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing." Sensors 14, no. 7: 12715-12734.


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