Sensors 2014, 14(7), 12437-12450; doi:10.3390/s140712437
Review

Highly Sensitive Nuclease Assays Based on Chemically Modified DNA or RNA

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Received: 14 April 2014; in revised form: 25 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 11 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Receptors and Sensors)
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Abstract: Nucleolytic enzymes are associated with various diseases, and several methods have been developed for their detection. DNase expression is modulated in such diseases as acute myocardial infarction, transient myocardial ischemia, oral cancer, stomach cancer, and malignant lymphoma, and DNase I is used in cystic fibroma therapy. RNase is used to treat mesothelial cancer because of its antiproliferative, cytotoxic, and antineoplastic activities. Angiogenin, an angiogenic factor, is a member of the RNase A family. Angiogenin inhibitors are being developed as anticancer drugs. In this review, we describe fluorometric and electrochemical techniques for detecting DNase and RNase in disease. Oligonucleotides having fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-causing chromophores are non-fluorescent by themselves, yet become fluorescent upon cleavage by DNase or RNase. These oligonucleotides serve as a powerful tool to detect activities of these enzymes and provide a basis for drug discovery. In electrochemical techniques, ferrocenyl oligonucleotides with or without a ribonucleoside unit are used for the detection of RNase or DNase. This technique has been used to monitor blood or serum samples in several diseases associated with DNase and RNase and is unaffected by interferents in these sample types.
Keywords: nuclease; DNase I; RNase A; oligonucleotide; disease marker; electrochemistry; fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET); nanocluster
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sato, S.; Takenaka, S. Highly Sensitive Nuclease Assays Based on Chemically Modified DNA or RNA. Sensors 2014, 14, 12437-12450.

AMA Style

Sato S, Takenaka S. Highly Sensitive Nuclease Assays Based on Chemically Modified DNA or RNA. Sensors. 2014; 14(7):12437-12450.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sato, Shinobu; Takenaka, Shigeori. 2014. "Highly Sensitive Nuclease Assays Based on Chemically Modified DNA or RNA." Sensors 14, no. 7: 12437-12450.


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