Next Article in Journal
Measurement of the D/H, 18O/16O, and 17O/16O Isotope Ratios in Water by Laser Absorption Spectroscopy at 2.73 μm
Previous Article in Journal
Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) Microgel-Based Optical Devices for Sensing and Biosensing
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2014, 14(5), 8996-9026; doi:10.3390/s140508996

Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Virtual Clusters

UTM-MIMOS Centre of Excellence in Telecommunication Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)

Abstract

The need for implementing reliable data transfer in resource-constrained cognitive radio ad hoc networks is still an open issue in the research community. Although geographical forwarding schemes are characterized by their low overhead and efficiency in reliable data transfer in traditional wireless sensor network, this potential is still yet to be utilized for viable routing options in resource-constrained cognitive radio ad hoc networks in the presence of lossy links. In this paper, a novel geographical forwarding technique that does not restrict the choice of the next hop to the nodes in the selected route is presented. This is achieved by the creation of virtual clusters based on spectrum correlation from which the next hop choice is made based on link quality. The design maximizes the use of idle listening and receiver contention prioritization for energy efficiency, the avoidance of routing hot spots and stability. The validation result, which closely follows the simulation result, shows that the developed scheme can make more advancement to the sink as against the usual decisions of relevant ad hoc on-demand distance vector route select operations, while ensuring channel quality. Further simulation results have shown the enhanced reliability, lower latency and energy efficiency of the presented scheme. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive radio ad hoc wireless networks; cognitive radio sensor network; geographical forwarding; reliable routing; routing protocol; opportunistic routing; virtual clustering cognitive radio ad hoc wireless networks; cognitive radio sensor network; geographical forwarding; reliable routing; routing protocol; opportunistic routing; virtual clustering
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zubair, S.; Fisal, N. Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Virtual Clusters. Sensors 2014, 14, 8996-9026.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top