Sensors 2014, 14(5), 8996-9026; doi:10.3390/s140508996
Article

Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Virtual Clusters

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Received: 14 March 2014; in revised form: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The need for implementing reliable data transfer in resource-constrained cognitive radio ad hoc networks is still an open issue in the research community. Although geographical forwarding schemes are characterized by their low overhead and efficiency in reliable data transfer in traditional wireless sensor network, this potential is still yet to be utilized for viable routing options in resource-constrained cognitive radio ad hoc networks in the presence of lossy links. In this paper, a novel geographical forwarding technique that does not restrict the choice of the next hop to the nodes in the selected route is presented. This is achieved by the creation of virtual clusters based on spectrum correlation from which the next hop choice is made based on link quality. The design maximizes the use of idle listening and receiver contention prioritization for energy efficiency, the avoidance of routing hot spots and stability. The validation result, which closely follows the simulation result, shows that the developed scheme can make more advancement to the sink as against the usual decisions of relevant ad hoc on-demand distance vector route select operations, while ensuring channel quality. Further simulation results have shown the enhanced reliability, lower latency and energy efficiency of the presented scheme.
Keywords: cognitive radio ad hoc wireless networks; cognitive radio sensor network; geographical forwarding; reliable routing; routing protocol; opportunistic routing; virtual clustering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zubair, S.; Fisal, N. Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Virtual Clusters. Sensors 2014, 14, 8996-9026.

AMA Style

Zubair S, Fisal N. Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Virtual Clusters. Sensors. 2014; 14(5):8996-9026.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zubair, Suleiman; Fisal, Norsheila. 2014. "Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Virtual Clusters." Sensors 14, no. 5: 8996-9026.

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