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Sensors 2014, 14(5), 9027-9045; doi:10.3390/s140509027
Article

Measurement of the D/H, 18O/16O, and 17O/16O Isotope Ratios in Water by Laser Absorption Spectroscopy at 2.73 μm

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1 Key Laboratory of Nondestructive Test (Ministry of Education), Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, China 2 Laboratoire de Physicochimie de l'Atmosphère, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 189A, Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque, France 3 Anhui Institute of Optics & Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China 4 Nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH, Oberer Kirschberg 4, 97218 Gerbrunn, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 12 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

A compact isotope ratio laser spectrometry (IRLS) instrument was developed for simultaneous measurements of the D/H, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in water by laser absorption spectroscopy at 2.73 μm. Special attention is paid to the spectral data processing and implementation of a Kalman adaptive filtering to improve the measurement precision. Reduction of up to 3-fold in standard deviation in isotope ratio determination was obtained by the use of a Fourier filtering to remove undulation structure from spectrum baseline. Application of Kalman filtering enables isotope ratio measurement at 1 s time intervals with a precision (<1‰) better than that obtained by conventional 30 s averaging, while maintaining a fast system response. The implementation of the filter is described in detail and its effects on the accuracy and the precision of the isotope ratio measurements are investigated.
Keywords: isotope ratios; water; Kalman filtering; laser absorption spectroscopy isotope ratios; water; Kalman filtering; laser absorption spectroscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Wu, T.; Chen, W.; Fertein, E.; Masselin, P.; Gao, X.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y.; Koeth, J.; Brückner, D.; He, X. Measurement of the D/H, 18O/16O, and 17O/16O Isotope Ratios in Water by Laser Absorption Spectroscopy at 2.73 μm. Sensors 2014, 14, 9027-9045.

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