Sensors 2014, 14(2), 3308-3322; doi:10.3390/s140203308
Article

Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

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Received: 22 November 2013; in revised form: 12 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.
Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility; Campylobacter; microarray; PFGE; sequencing; virulence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Giannatale, E.; Di Serafino, G.; Zilli, K.; Alessiani, A.; Sacchini, L.; Garofolo, G.; Aprea, G.; Marotta, F. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy. Sensors 2014, 14, 3308-3322.

AMA Style

Di Giannatale E, Di Serafino G, Zilli K, Alessiani A, Sacchini L, Garofolo G, Aprea G, Marotta F. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy. Sensors. 2014; 14(2):3308-3322.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca. 2014. "Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy." Sensors 14, no. 2: 3308-3322.

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