Sensors 2014, 14(2), 2239-2258; doi:10.3390/s140202239
Article

Direct Detection of Protein Biomarkers in Human Fluids Using Site-Specific Antibody Immobilization Strategies

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Received: 24 December 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonics and Nanoplasmonics Biosensors)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Design of an optimal surface biofunctionalization still remains an important challenge for the application of biosensors in clinical practice and therapeutic follow-up. Optical biosensors offer real-time monitoring and highly sensitive label-free analysis, along with great potential to be transferred to portable devices. When applied in direct immunoassays, their analytical features depend strongly on the antibody immobilization strategy. A strategy for correct immobilization of antibodies based on the use of ProLinker™ has been evaluated and optimized in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility. Special effort has been focused on avoiding antibody manipulation, preventing nonspecific adsorption and obtaining a robust biosurface with regeneration capabilities. ProLinker™-based approach has demonstrated to fulfill those crucial requirements and, in combination with PEG-derivative compounds, has shown encouraging results for direct detection in biological fluids, such as pure urine or diluted serum. Furthermore, we have implemented the ProLinker™ strategy to a novel nanoplasmonic-based biosensor resulting in promising advantages for its application in clinical and biomedical diagnosis.
Keywords: antibody immobilization; ProLinker™; direct immunoassay; SPR biosensor; nanoplasmonic biosensor; gold nanodisks; clinical diagnosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soler, M.; Estevez, M.-C.; Alvarez, M.; Otte, M.A.; Sepulveda, B.; Lechuga, L.M. Direct Detection of Protein Biomarkers in Human Fluids Using Site-Specific Antibody Immobilization Strategies. Sensors 2014, 14, 2239-2258.

AMA Style

Soler M, Estevez M-C, Alvarez M, Otte MA, Sepulveda B, Lechuga LM. Direct Detection of Protein Biomarkers in Human Fluids Using Site-Specific Antibody Immobilization Strategies. Sensors. 2014; 14(2):2239-2258.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soler, Maria; Estevez, M.-Carmen; Alvarez, Mar; Otte, Marinus A.; Sepulveda, Borja; Lechuga, Laura M. 2014. "Direct Detection of Protein Biomarkers in Human Fluids Using Site-Specific Antibody Immobilization Strategies." Sensors 14, no. 2: 2239-2258.

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