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Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21923-21940; doi:10.3390/s141121923

Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
University Kuala Lumpur-British Malaysian Institute, Batu 8, Jalan Sg Pusu, Gombak 53100, Selangor, Malaysia
Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Wakasato 4-17-1, Nagano 380-8553, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1110 KB, uploaded 19 November 2014]   |  


As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept. View Full-Text
Keywords: induction; resonant frequency; air coil; oil palm; frequency characteristics; maturity classification; inductive concepts induction; resonant frequency; air coil; oil palm; frequency characteristics; maturity classification; inductive concepts

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Harun, N.H.; Misron, N.; Sidek, R.M.; Aris, I.; Wakiwaka, H.; Tashiro, K. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor. Sensors 2014, 14, 21923-21940.

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