Next Article in Journal
Fibre Tip Sensors for Localised Temperature Sensing Based on Rare Earth-Doped Glass Coatings
Next Article in Special Issue
Adaptive Weibull Multiplicative Model and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks for Dark-Spot Detection from SAR Imagery
Previous Article in Journal
Wireless and Simultaneous Detections of Multiple Bio-Molecules in a Single Sensor Using Love Wave Biosensor
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Binary Mixtures of Inducers (Toluene Analogs) and of Metals on Bioluminescence Induction of a Recombinant Bioreporter Strain
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21676-21692; doi:10.3390/s141121676

Investigation into Alternative Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Stationary Source Emission Samples Collected on Quartz Filters

Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Sensing Pollution in Air, Water, and Soil)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [757 KB, uploaded 17 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Monitoring stationary source emissions for heavy metals generally requires the use of quartz filters to collect samples because of the high temperature and high moisture sampling environment. The documentary standard method sample preparation technique in Europe, EN 14385, uses digestion in hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid (HF/HNO3) followed by complexing with boric acid (H3BO3) prior to analysis. However, the use of this method presents a number of problems, including significant instrumental drift during analysis caused by the matrix components, often leading to instrument breakdown and downtime for repairs, as well as posing significant health and safety risks. The aim of this work was to develop an alternative sample preparation technique for emissions samples on quartz filters. The alternative techniques considered were: (i) acid digestion in a fluoroboric acid (HBF4) and HNO3 mixture and (ii) acid extraction in an aqua regia (AR) mixture (HCl and HNO3). Assessment of the effectiveness of these options included determination of interferences and signal drift, as well as validating the different methods by measurement of matrix certified reference materials (CRMs), and comparing the results obtained from real test samples and sample blanks to determine limits of detection. The results showed that the HBF4/HNO3 mixture provides the most viable alternative to the documentary standard preparation technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: stationary source emissions; heavy metals; quartz filters; hydrofluoric acid; fluoroboric acid; aqua regia stationary source emissions; heavy metals; quartz filters; hydrofluoric acid; fluoroboric acid; aqua regia
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Goddard, S.L.; Brown, R.J.C. Investigation into Alternative Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Stationary Source Emission Samples Collected on Quartz Filters. Sensors 2014, 14, 21676-21692.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top